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Analysis of Parthenon’s Entasis Column Based on a Forced Perspective
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2019; 69: 718~726
Published online July 31, 2019;
© 2019 New Physics: Sae Mulli.

Youngseok JHUN*

Department of Science Education, Seoul National University of Education, Seoul 06639, Korea
Correspondence to:
Received February 20, 2019; Revised June 11, 2019; Accepted June 20, 2019.
cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The columns of the Parthenonm which have entasis, are known to be intended to compensate for an optical illusion while less concrete explanations have been given. The purpose of this study is to argue that columns with entasis were used in order to make observers perceive the columns as being higher than they actually are by using an exaggerated perspective, the so-called as-forced perspective. Through a calculation of the vanishing points, I found that the inclinations of the sides of columns with entasis as seen by observers caused them to think that the height of the point at which they were gazing was the same as that of taller cylindrical columns. The result of the study also shows that the perspective image formed as an observer gradually gazes upward along the cylindrical column has the shape of column with entasis. We can use the result of their study as teaching and learning material for light propagation and for process of human vision, which will lead the learner to the study of virtual reality space, will help students to learn the importance of suspicion and confirmation, not believing what has been passed down through the generations, as well as the value of intellectual enjoyment.
PACS numbers: 01.40.$-$d, 42.15.$-$i
Keywords: Perspective, Entasis, Geometrical optics, Light propagation, Illusion

July 2019, 69 (7)
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