Table. 1.

The characteristics of the process of pursuing universality appeared in the paper on the general theory of relativity.

The beginning of the pursuit of universality (Why) The content of universality (What) The method of pursuing of universality (How)
The need for an extension of the postulate of relativity
- Because of an inherent epistemological defect in classical mechanics
- With the introduction of the gravitational field, inertial frames and accelerated frames have an equal right as systems of reference for describing the physical phenomena.
1. Frame-independent laws of physics
1-1. Requirement of the general covariance: The general laws of nature are to be expressed by equations which hold good for all systems of coordinates.
1-2. The field equations
xαΓμνα+ΓμβαΓναβ=κ(Tμν12gμνT)

1-3. The laws of conservation of momentum and energy
(tτσ+Tτσ)xσ=0
1. Pointing out specific defects in existing knowledge of physics - Epistemological defect in classical mechanics
2. Frame-independent physical quantities (invariants)
2-1. Interval: ds2=τσgστdxσdxτ
2-2. The trace of the energy tensor of matter: Tμμ
2. Accepting principles and concepts that should be universally respected
2-1. Spacetime interval as an invariant quantity (from special theory of relativity)
2-2. Field equation as a second order differential equation (like other laws of physics)
2-3. Requirement of the conservation of momentum and energy
3. Object-independent laws of physics
3-1. Requirement that the energy of the gravitational field (tμσ) shall behave in the same way as other kind of energy (Tμσ)
3-2. The physical laws of matter (hydrodynamic, Maxwell’s electrodynamics) can be generalized to fit with the general relativity theory.
3. Making new argument as universal ones that everyone will naturally accept - Requirement of the general covariance.
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2021;71:510~526 https://doi.org/10.3938/NPSM.71.510
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