Table. 3.

The characteristics of the process of pursuing universality appeared in the paper on photoelectric effect.

The beginning of the pursuit of universality (Why) The content of universality (What) The method of pursuing of universality (How)
A profound formal distinction exists between material theory and Maxwellian theory
- Material theory
: A state is determined by positions and velocities of the particles. And the energy is represented as a sum carried over the particles.
3. Object-independent laws of physics
3-1. Trying to explain the emission and transformation of light with material theory:
① entropy expression for the change of volume of monochromatic radiation at low frequency
SS0=Eβν In υυ0

② entropy expression for the change of volume of an ideal gas with n moving particles based on Boltzmann’s theory of molecular motion
SS0=RnΝ In υυ0

→ Both expressions are identified.
1. Pointing out specific defects in existing knowledge of physics
- A profound formal distinction between material theory and Maxwellian theory
- Maxwellian theory
: A state and the energy of all pure electromagnetic phenomena is represented as a continuous spatial function.
2. Accepting principles and concepts that should be universally respected
- Boltzmann’s theory of molecular motion
Contradiction with the experience when Maxwell Theory is applied to the emission and transformation of light. 3-2. The relationship between the quantity of absorbed light and the number of molecules of ionized gas must be valid for all gases
j=LRβν

(An experimental tests when gases are ionized by ultraviolet light)
3. Making new argument a universal one that everyone will naturally accept
- Boltzmann’s theory of molecular motion applies equally to radiation.
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2021;71:510~526 https://doi.org/10.3938/NPSM.71.510
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