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Table. 2.

Analysis framework.

Type Criteria Example
Higher-order thinking Were the class goals clearly set, and did content explanations and learning activities to deepen students' knowledge appeared? The groups conduct an experiment to find out the magnetic field generated around the straight wire. Students interpret the experimental results and discuss and present what regularities appear.
Depth of knowledge Were contents that improve students' thinking skills such as generalization, interpretation, and prediction presented? Teacher explains what force acts when an object falls. In addition, teacher has students compare how a force acts in a motion of varying speed versus a motion of constant speed.
Connectedness to the world beyond the classroom Were the contents that increase students' understanding and interest presented through the connection of experiences related to the learning contents? Teacher asks the students why they wear helmets when riding an electric kick board. Also teacher asks if they are ever caught the ball with a baseball glove. Teacher explains the amount of impact and asks what things can reduce the impact in real life.
Substantive conversation Were teachers' questions and information provision suggested to induce various responses and opinions of students? Students present their opinions on various safeguards and operating principles. Teacher asks what other students think about the presentation. It also asks about the pros and cons of ideas.
Social support for student achievement Were learning activities suitable for the student's level and an acceptable class mood presented? Teacher checks if all students can see the video before showing it. Teacher also provides a worksheet and guides students to understand the learning content using it.
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2022;72:914~922