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Table. 4.

Analysis of students’ responses according to the experimental process.

Topic Measure temperature change when two substances of different temperatures in contact
Analysis of exploratory activity contents and results 4th 5th 6th
4A 4B 4C 4D 5E 5F 5G 5H 6I 6J 6K 6L
Experimental setup E51. Install the stand. O × O O O O O
E52. Place the metal can filled with cold water into the beaker containing warm water. O O O O
E53. Place two alcohol thermometers in a metal can and a beaker and hang them on a stand. × O O O
Performing experiment E54. Before measuring the time, measure the initial temperature of the cold and warm water. O O × O × × × × × × O
E55. Time is measured every minute. × × × O × × × × O × O O
E56. Measure the temperature of the water in the can and beaker every minute. × × × × × × × O × O O
E57. Record the measured temperature accurately in the experiment workbook. × × × × × × × O × O O
Interpretation of experimental results I51. Based on the experimental results, when two substances of different temperatures come into contact, the temperature of the warm substance gradually decreases and the temperature of the cold substance gradually increases. (induction) MC O O O O O O O O O O
I52. Explain that as time passes while the two materials are in contact, the temperatures of the two materials become the same. (extrapolation) × × × × × PK PK PK PK O O O
Understanding Science Concepts C51. Based on the results of the experiment or interpretation of the results, explain that the reason the temperature of two substances in contact changes is due to heat transfer (concept introduction) MC × × MC × × × MC × MC O MC
C52. Explain that between two substances in contact, heat moves from the substance with a higher temperature to the substance with a lower temperature (applying the concept) × × × × × × × × O × O ×

- O: Experiment while reducing measurement error

- △: Measurement is difficult and there are measurement errors

- ×: Fail experiment or give up

- PK: Organize results with pre-learned knowledge without using experiment results

- MC: Failure to explain or misconceptions based on experimental results

New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2024;74:461~476