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Table. 4.

The evaluation criteria for analyzing keywords in ‘Electricity and Magnetism’.

Keywords Criteria
Electromagnetic phenomena S: This pertains to cases where electromagnetic phenomena are described qualitatively or quantitatively using electromagnetic laws, including Coulomb's law, Ampère's law, Faraday's law, and other physical laws that explain electromagnetic phenomena.
M: This refers to instances where electromagnetic phenomena are merely mentioned without qualitative or quantitative explanation through Maxwell's electromagnetic laws.
Mechanical viewpoint S: This attempts to interpret electromagnetic phenomena based on matter and forces from a mechanical viewpoint. For example, describing electromagnetic phenomena as the interaction of electric forces between charged substances (i.e., described by Coulomb's law) exemplifies a case of a mechanical viewpoint.
M: This describes interpretations of electromagnetic phenomena based on matter and forces but does not present this as a perspective for interpreting electromagnetic phenomena.
Oersted’s experiment S: Oersted's experiment, demonstrating the magnetic effect of electric current, introduces the limitation of the force concept from a mechanical viewpoint (specifically, the concept of central force).
M: Oersted's experiment is introduced as demonstrating the magnetic effect of electric current but does not explain it in relation to the concept of force from a mechanical viewpoint.
Faraday’s experiment S: Faraday's experiment, demonstrating electromagnetic induction, introduces the need for a new perspective rather than a mechanical viewpoint to interpret it.
M: Faraday's experiment is introduced as demonstrating electromagnetic induction but does not explain it in relation to a viewpoint looking at nature.
Field-theoretical viewpoint S: This describes attempts to explain electromagnetic phenomena using the concept of fields defined locally in relation to ideas associated with the spatially extended fields, thereby illustrating an approach from a field-theoretical viewpoint. (For example, describing the spatial structure of fields in terms of local field values within a specific area can be explained from a field-theoretical viewpoint.)
M: This involves interpreting electromagnetic phenomena by defining ideas associated with fields extended in space and classifying them locally, but it does not present this as a singular viewpoint for explaining electromagnetic phenomena.
Maxwell’s equations S: Maxwell's equations are mentioned as equations representing the structure of fields and are described as exemplary laws for explaining electromagnetic phenomena from a field-theoretical viewpoint. (An example of exemplary laws includes equations like Newton's equations, which explain natural phenomena based on a mechanical viewpoint.)
M: Maxwell's equations are described as laws that explain electromagnetic phenomena based on the concept of fields but are not explained in relation to a field-theoretical viewpoint.
Electromagnetic wave S: It explains that the theoretical prediction of electromagnetic waves was made from a field-theoretical viewpoint and, as a result, led to the discovery of a relationship between electromagnetic phenomena and optical phenomena.
M: It describes electromagnetic waves as a concept demonstrating the relationship between electromagnetic and optical phenomena but does not explain this in relation to a viewpoint looking at nature.
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2024;74:561~577