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Table. 5.

Macroscopic and microscopic results suggested in students’ scientific explanations.

Type Thermal equilibrium Thermal expansion}
Response N(%) Response N(%)

Water temperature is lowered and ice pack temperature is increased (R1)

The two temperatures becomes the same (R2)

28 (29.2)

Temperature increases (R1)

6 (6.6)
(R1-Ma)-(R1-Mi) -(R2-Ma)-(R2-Mi)-⋯

The temperature of the ice pack increases and the temperature of the cup lowered (R1-Ma). The molecular motion of ice pack become more active, those of water in the cup slows down (R1-Mi), ⋯ the two temperature becomes the same

5 (5.2)

Temperature increases (R1-Ma), particle motion becomes active (R1-Mi), the distance between the particles increases (R2-Mi), and volume increases (R2-Ma),⋯

6 (6.6)
Sum 33 (34.4) 12 (13.2)
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2024;74:578~588