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Table. 3.

Causes suggested in students’ scientific explanations.


Type Thermal equilibrium Thermal expansion}
Response N(%) Response N(%)
C1 The thermal energy moves from the warm water to the ice pack 30 (31.3) Being heated in the hot summer 12 (13.2)
C1-C2-⋯ The thermal energy moves from a hot place (cup) to a cold place (ice pack) (C1),⋯ from a cup to air (C2)⋯ 3 (3.1) Not applicable
Sum 33 (34.4) 12 (13.2)
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2024;74:578~588 https://doi.org/10.3938/NPSM.74.578
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