search for
A Study of the Thermal Properties of Nano-crystalline Binary Oxides Prepared by Co-precipitation Method
New Phys.: Sae Mulli 2020; 70: 108~113
Published online February 28, 2020;
© 2020 New Physics: Sae Mulli.

Tahira Amer Bashir ZIYA1, Muhammad Naeem ASHIQ2, Jae-Hyeon KO*3, Farooq BASHIR4, Ghulam SHABBIR5

1Department of Physics, B. Z. University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
2Institute of Chemical Sciences, B. Z. University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
3School of Nano Convergence Technology, Nano Convergence Technology Center, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
4L. C. W. University, Lahore, Pakistan
5Materials Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad 45650, Pakistan
Correspondence to:
Received September 2, 2019; Revised January 31, 2020; Accepted January 31, 2020.
cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The Thermal properties of nano-crystalline CeO$ _{2}$, FeO, MgO, Ho$ _{2}$O$ _{3}$, NiO and Y$ _{2}$O$ _{3}$, prepared by using the co-precipitation method, have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The integrated intensity data obtained from the X-ray diffraction experiments was utilized to determine the temperature factor ($\overline{B(T)}$), mean square amplitude of vibration ($\overline{u^2(T)}$), Debye temperature ($\theta_D$), melting point ($T_{m}$) and activation energy for vacancy formation ($E_{f}$). The values of ($\overline{B(T)}$) and ($\overline{u^2(T)}$) in the present case were found to be large while the values of $\theta_D$ and $E_{f}$ were found to be lower than the corresponding values reported for the binary oxides with large particle sizes. This suggests that a decrease in particle size from micro to nano-scale may induce weakening of the bonds. On a nano-scale as compared to ordinary size, the values of the melting points were found be higher for the heavier atomic oxides. 
PACS numbers: 61.46.-w, 61.05.C-
Keywords: X-ray diffraction, Binary oxides, Thermal properties

March 2020, 70 (3)
  • Scopus
  • CrossMark