Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords
New Physics: Sae Mulli 2016; 66: 910-915
Published online July 29, 2016 https://doi.org/10.3938/NPSM.66.910
Copyright © New Physics: Sae Mulli.
Department of Computer and Electronic Physics, Sangji University, Wonju 26339, Korea
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In scalar-tensor theory, we discuss the distorting effects caused by axially-symmetric normal matter distributed outside the event horizon of static black holes. Scalar-tensor theory is usually defined in the Jordan frame, however, we choose the Einstein frame as a physical frame for the discussion of black-hole phenomena and obtain the zeroth and the first laws of black-hole thermodynamics for distorted black holes. A static `pure' black hole is unique; the static vacuum solution is the Schwarzschild black hole. In scalar-tensor theory, however, external matter induces a scalar field that generates a fifth force directly competing with Newton's universal gravitation. Measuring this fifth force, we can, in principle, distinguish between scalar-tensor theory and Einstein theory. The physical effect caused by the induced scalar field of distorted black holes can equally be interpreted in the Jordan frame.
Keywords: Distorted black holes, Scalar-tensor theory, Gravitational mass, Conformal frames